Презентация, доклад disease and technology through theages

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Then & Now… disease and technology through the ages Part II

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Ancient Greece - 776 BC 1st to study cause of disease -looked for natural explanations not just divine ones

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Hippocrates, most famous of all ancient Greek physicians based knowledge of anatomy on observation of external body human dissection during this time was taboo responsible for writing oath of medical ethics: Hippocratic Oath became known as the “Father of Modern Medicine”

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Greek thinkers emphasized idea of balance in all things. The idea of balance was reflected by belief in four humors of human body: yellow bile black bile blood phlegm

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Their Balance Theory for “fours”: theory that four elements: earth, air, fire & water & the four seasons: summer, autumn, winter & spring were all linked to the four humors in human body

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doctors could restore balance by, for example, by bloodletting doctors could restore balance by, for example, by bloodletting

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1. How many elements were involved in the “balance theory”? . 1. How many elements were involved in the “balance theory”? . 2. What was the 1st code of medical ethics called? . 3. Name one of the body’s humors.

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Aqueducts – Aqueducts – collected water from several natural springs, located far away from city Water was chosen according to many factors: position of its springs purity of its water its taste alleged medical properties due to mineral salts

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Ancient Roman Sewer

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Public baths were cheap to enter, so both rich & poor could afford to go often. Public baths were cheap to enter, so both rich & poor could afford to go often. Men & women bathed in separate facilities. People did not go to baths just to get clean. Baths were a place to meet friends, relax or gamble & play games. People would have a massage, then have their body scrubbed down before swimming in outdoor pool.

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5. The Romans learned about disease and hygiene from . . . . 5. The Romans learned about disease and hygiene from . . . . 6. Roman aqueducts carried:  a. clean water to cities b. sewage away from cities .

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Dark Age (early Middle Age) - AD 400-800 & High Middle Ages - AD 800-1400 Beginning of Dark Ages Roman Empire was conquered by Huns

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During this time church began to dominate the practice of science & medicine During this time church began to dominate the practice of science & medicine Study of medical science all but stopped Instead of medical intervention, the church held fast to belief “healing through Christ”

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Treatment for ill during this time: Prayer Exorcism Saintly relics Superstition

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Terrible epidemics during this period: Bubonic plague (Black Death) Smallpox Syphilis Diphtheria Tuberculosis

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The Renaissance (AD 1350 - 1650) Building of universities & medical schools Search for new ideas (rather than unquestioning acceptance of disease as will of God)

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Acceptance of dissection for study Development of printing press & publishing books (allowed more access to knowledge from research)

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8. Who conquered the Roman empire?  8. Who conquered the Roman empire?  a. Greeks b. Mesopotamians c. Germans d. Huns . 9. Why did the study of medicine come to a stop during the Dark Ages? .

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11. What does the word “Renaissance” mean?  11. What does the word “Renaissance” mean?  a. rebirth b. academia c. new ideas d. scholar .

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Discoveries of Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries

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Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

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Anton van Leeuwenhoek 1632 - 1723 Dutchman Invented microscope in 1673 & discovered “animacules”

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12. Leonardo da Vinci is known as:  12. Leonardo da Vinci is known as:  a. an engineer b. an artist c. a scientist d. all .

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Discoveries of Eighteenth Century

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Edward Jenner (1749-1823) Country doctor in England Found vaccination protected people against smallpox

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Jenner observed that milkmaids who caught less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. Jenner observed that milkmaids who caught less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. Led him to discover technique of vaccination when he deliberately infected a small boy with cowpox.

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The word ”vaccination," made up by Jenner for his treatment (comes from Latin vacca, a cow).

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Rene Laënnec (1781-1826) French physician Invented cylinder stethoscope Originally made from paper; later made from hallow wooden tube Hailed as Father of Thoracic Medicine

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Before stethoscope, doctors put ear directly to body

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What led to invention of stethoscope? Laënnec: “In 1816, I was consulted by a young woman laboring under general symptoms of diseased heart, and in whose case percussion and the application of the hand were of little avail on the account of the great degree of fatness…” “I rolled a quire of paper (24 sheets) into a kind of cylinder and applied one end of it to the region of the heart and the other to my ear.”

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14. The word vaccination is derived from a Latin word, which means . . ?. 14. The word vaccination is derived from a Latin word, which means . . ?.

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Nineteenth Century Disease & Medicine

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James Blundell (1790-1877) 1818- performed 1st successful human blood transfusion transfused blood from husband to his wife by means of syringe

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Blundell performed 10 transfusions up to 1830 Blundell performed 10 transfusions up to 1830 about half were successful At this point, blood typing had not been developed & transfusions were risky. In 1870's, doctors began using milk from cows, goats & humans, as blood substitute This was replaced with saline solution in 1880's

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William Morton (1819-1868) Dentist who developed anesthesia techniques that made surgery painless

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1st operation using anesthesia

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Ether inhaler invented by William Morton, about 1846

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Florence Nightingale (1820 - 1910) pioneer of nursing reformer of hospital sanitation methods

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Although bedridden for many years, she campaigned tirelessly to improve health standards Although bedridden for many years, she campaigned tirelessly to improve health standards published 200 books, reports & pamphlets In recognition of her work Queen Victoria awarded Miss Nightingale the Royal Red Cross in 1883. She died at age 90

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MATCHING: MATCHING: 17. Reformed hospitals; pioneered nursing 18. Successful blood transfusions 19. developed anesthesia techniques.

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Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Father of Bacteriology Discovered that microorganisms were everywhere Proved that microbes caused disease

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Pasture also developed vaccines against anthrax & rabies.

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Sir Joseph Lister (1827-1912) Discovered that carbolic acid killed germs Used as an asepsis in surgery

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Lister Introduces Antisepsis For six weeks, Lister had treated a boy's compound fracture wound with carbolic acid. When Lister removed dressings from fracture, he found wound had healed without infection--something unheard of!

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Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) German physicist Discovered x-rays in 1895

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Roentgen’s wife, Bertha, & his x-ray of her hand

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Poem appeared in Photography magazine, 1895

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MATCHING: MATCHING: 20. Developed rabies vaccine 21. Discovered x-rays 22. Used carbolic acid to kill germs .

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Biomedical firsts of the 20th-century:

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Onward to new medical advances . . .


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